As the central objective in this treaty, the Antarctic Zone was reserved for peaceful purposes and any global accord won’t be effective in the area. As the possible implication of this treaty, area lying in the south of 60oS Latitude was covered by it and this area got the special recognition as ATA (Antarctic Treaty Area), free from any territorial rights, absence of any defence drills but with full and free access to efforts related to scientific research and geological investigation, with strong focus upon global participation in such activities.
As for India, we joined this treaty in 1983 with the badge Consultative Party Member.
Convention On International Trade In Endangered Species Of Wild Fauna And Flora (CITES) 1973:
This was signed in 1973 in a bid to manage trade in endangered species concerning wild fauna and flora internationally. India agreed to its terms in 1976 and its Management Authority is one designated by India, who is Director Wild Life Preservation . Even though there is an effort to check trade in such unlucky species but still, not all conservation is, as per reports, covered under it.
The treaty is known by yet another term, i.e. Montreal Protocol, conceptualized in 1989 and unrolled the objectives meant to discourage consumption of ODS (Ozone Depleting Substances) and also to check its eventual production. Then, the protocol also lays down a handful of obligations on part of countries and they are required to take measures to bring down ODS emissions through various means and to identify the locations with higher concentration of ODS emissions.
In our case, that was in 1992, that Montreal Protocol was aligned with, by India and to strengthen the cause, the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), GOI has constituted a Ozone Cell which is overlooked by a committee which is again specifically set up to supplement the Montreal Protocol guidelines in light of India country Program.
Clearly, there lies a vast mass of residue post production in factories, which still carries hazardous chemicals still activated and also, which is radioactive. Hence, for controlling the output of such waste in increased number and also to reduce its improper trans-boundary carriage, this Convention was organized. The convention includes shipment as well, to any destination where government finds it difficult to dispose such waste quickly without bringing public under its dreaded effect. In India, The Indian Hazardous Waste Management Rules Act, 1989 was formulated which had many provisions from this Convention.
To empower global cooperation in order to efficiently manage greenhouse gas emissions has been the central aim behind this effort, through which harmful fallout of global warming can be checked with towering efficacy. India joined this group in 1992, while we were not entitled to abide its recommendations as we were still a developing country, but with the Paris Agreement taking place in 2015, the whole scenario has changed altogether and India has been leading from the front since then as we enter into multilateral discourse under the auspices of this convention.
Here also, a display of great courage and commitment has been there from Indian side, in form of new policies and actions, proposed by us. For example, National Environment Policy (NEP) and National Action Plan On Climate Change (NAPCC).
For the sake of biodiversity conservation, a handful of recommendations have been put in place, through this treaty, whereby principle effort has been to bring in sustenance in biological resources and to push researching efforts deeper into the field only to share the insights among the member nations for collective study and further researching efforts into biological resources and their usage. That was in 1993 that this convention was organized, alongside some instructions which were put before global adherence to ensure biodiversity preservation and to safeguard natural habitats.
Here, the Nagoya Protocol was given rise to in 2010 to highlight the achievements of this Convention. In CBD, the Article 6 of it lays down before member countries to formulate policies and strategies for such a purpose and to enforce it. India framed Biological Diversity Act 2002 and biodiversity was given legal sanctity. We have been proactive in the field and have made our strong case in scores of international platforms, such as International Treaty on Plant Genetic resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRA) and also in Trade Related Intellectual property Rights (TRIPS) for the easy achievement of aforementioned objective.
Actually, there was organized Earth Summit by UNO, location and year was Rio De Janerio in and the year was 1992 in Brazil, with the underlying effort of widening the circle of membership to include new parties such as businesses, local and national level government bodies, activists and NGOs. A decade later, World Summit was organized whereby the discussion centred around Sustainable Development and collaborations were assessed to enhance their scope globally and to refine the existing parties to enable Agenda 21. India has also signed this treaty and has renewed the pledge to abide by its objectives , related to developing framework for energy, transport, industry, marine and coastal life, land policy, agriculture etc.
The association was set up to strengthen global alliance to check the menace caused by desertification or to evaluate areas likely to be hit by drought along with such policy. Further, policy is drafted in such a manner that even at local level, participation is encouraged alongside NGO support, centring around Desertification and its fall out.
In region of South Asia, we have Regional Action program comprising 7 countries and India is among the one.
This is a supporting pillar to the Convention on Biological Diversity and there is in place, a handful of regulations concerning Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) which are simply the organisms that are genetically modified. Under the declaration, guidelines for safe use, transportation and for overall efficient management are laid out. This is rightly considered as the first of its kind protocol which was brought forth in the year 2000. Then, under the light of Convention for Biodiversity, some of the aspects were altered with the objective of ensuring safety from ill effects of modern biotechnology.
This is a treaty that is also known by the term Rotterdam Convention, which lays down guidelines to enforce responsible trading of chemicals that are likely to cause a major hazard. We can easily divert our minds towards recent gigantic explosion in Beirut killing over 100 innocent lives.
The treaty came into form in 2004 and a few important guidelines are laid down regarding handling and storage of hazardous chemicals as well as about their export and import and India sanctioned this treaty in 2005.